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全国冬小麦春季田间管理技术指导意见

  “立春”已过,“雨水”将至,全国(guo)冬小(xiao)麦陆续返青(qing)起身拔节,正(zheng)是加强春季田间管理,促进苗(miao)情转化(hua)升级,实现稳穗增(zeng)粒(li)的关键时期。针对(dui)当前小(xiao)麦苗(miao)情、土壤墒情和气候特点,各地要(yao)遵循“因地因苗(miao)、分(fen)类管理,控旺促壮、促弱(ruo)转壮,节肥增(zeng)效、绿色防控,稳穗增(zeng)粒(li)、抗逆保丰(feng)”的技(ji)术(shu)路径,强化(hua)技(ji)术(shu)措施落实,夯实夏粮丰(feng)收基础。

  一、黄淮和华北地区

  大部(bu)地(di)区(qu)小麦(mai)秋播(bo)期间天(tian)气条件(jian)和土壤墒(shang)情较为(wei)适宜(yi),适期播(bo)种(zhong)比例(li)大,整地(di)播(bo)种(zhong)出(chu)苗(miao)(miao)质量较高。旺苗(miao)(miao)面积(ji)有所(suo)增加,春季冻害(hai)风(feng)险较大。部(bu)分(fen)地(di)区(qu)旱象显(xian)现,土壤墒(shang)情偏(pian)差(cha)。同时,部(bu)分(fen)秸秆还(hai)田麦(mai)田,土壤暄松,苗(miao)(miao)情较弱。春季麦(mai)田管理应(ying)以“控旺促弱转壮、保苗(miao)(miao)稳健生长(zhang)”为(wei)主攻(gong)方(fang)向,切实抓紧抓好各项关键(jian)技术措施落实。

  一(yi)是(shi)镇(zhen)压(ya)划锄(chu),保(bao)(bao)墒(shang)(shang)(shang)增(zeng)温。镇(zhen)压(ya)可压(ya)碎土(tu)(tu)块(kuai),弥(mi)封裂缝(feng),使(shi)(shi)冬季冻(dong)(dong)融疏(shu)松的(de)土(tu)(tu)壤沉(chen)实,使(shi)(shi)土(tu)(tu)壤与根系密接起来(lai),有利(li)于根系吸收(shou)水分(fen)养(yang)分(fen),减少水分(fen)散失。对于吊(diao)根苗和(he)耕种粗放、坷垃较多、秸秆(gan)还田(tian)导(dao)致土(tu)(tu)壤暄松的(de)地(di)块(kuai),一(yi)定要在(zai)早春土(tu)(tu)壤化冻(dong)(dong)后(hou)进行镇(zhen)压(ya),以沉(chen)实土(tu)(tu)壤,弥(mi)合(he)(he)裂缝(feng),减少水分(fen)蒸发(fa),避(bi)免冷空(kong)气侵(qin)入分(fen)蘖节(jie)附近冻(dong)(dong)伤麦(mai)苗;对没(mei)有水浇条件的(de)旱(han)地(di)麦(mai)田(tian),在(zai)土(tu)(tu)壤化冻(dong)(dong)后(hou)及时镇(zhen)压(ya),促使(shi)(shi)土(tu)(tu)壤下层水分(fen)向上移(yi)动,起到提(ti)墒(shang)(shang)(shang)、保(bao)(bao)墒(shang)(shang)(shang)、抗旱(han)的(de)作(zuo)用(yong);对长势过旺(wang)(wang)麦(mai)田(tian),在(zai)起身期前(qian)后(hou)镇(zhen)压(ya),可以抑(yi)制地(di)上部(bu)生长,起到控旺(wang)(wang)转壮作(zuo)用(yong)。划锄(chu)具有良(liang)好(hao)的(de)保(bao)(bao)墒(shang)(shang)(shang)、增(zeng)温、灭草等效果(guo),早春划锄(chu)最好(hao)和(he)镇(zhen)压(ya)结合(he)(he)起来(lai),一(yi)般是(shi)先压(ya)后(hou)锄(chu),以达到上松下实、提(ti)墒(shang)(shang)(shang)保(bao)(bao)墒(shang)(shang)(shang)增(zeng)温抗旱(han)的(de)作(zuo)用(yong)。

  二是分(fen)(fen)(fen)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)管(guan)(guan)理(li),控(kong)旺(wang)促(cu)(cu)(cu)弱(ruo)(ruo)。对旺(wang)长(zhang)苗(miao)(miao)(miao),应以控(kong)为(wei)主(zhu)。旺(wang)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian)一(yi)般年前亩(mu)(mu)(mu)茎数(shu)(shu)达(da)80万以上,这类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian)由于群体(ti)(ti)较(jiao)(jiao)大,叶(ye)片(pian)细长(zhang),拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)期以后,容易田(tian)(tian)间郁蔽、光照不(bu)良,导致倒伏。对这类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian)在(zai)(zai)返(fan)(fan)青(qing)至起身(shen)阶段及(ji)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)镇压(ya),可(ke)有(you)效抑制春(chun)季分(fen)(fen)(fen)蘖(nie)(nie)和基部节(jie)间过度伸长(zhang)。旺(wang)长(zhang)严重地(di)(di)块可(ke)镇压(ya)2—3次,春(chun)季追(zhui)(zhui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)浇水(shui)推迟到拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)后期,每(mei)亩(mu)(mu)(mu)追(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿素(su)(su)15公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)左(zuo)右(you)。对三类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)苗(miao)(miao)(miao),应以促(cu)(cu)(cu)为(wei)主(zhu),促(cu)(cu)(cu)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)情(qing)转化(hua)升级(ji)。在(zai)(zai)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)春(chun)表(biao)层土化(hua)冻(dong)(dong)2厘米(mi)时(shi)(shi)开始划锄,增温促(cu)(cu)(cu)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)发。同时(shi)(shi),在(zai)(zai)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)春(chun)土壤(rang)化(hua)冻(dong)(dong)后及(ji)时(shi)(shi)追(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)素(su)(su)化(hua)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)和磷(lin)(lin)(lin)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),促(cu)(cu)(cu)根增蘖(nie)(nie)保(bao)(bao)穗数(shu)(shu)。只要(yao)墒情(qing)尚可(ke),尽量(liang)避免早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)春(chun)浇水(shui),以免降低地(di)(di)温,影响土壤(rang)透气(qi)性延缓麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)生长(zhang)。待日平均气(qi)温稳定在(zai)(zai)5℃时(shi)(shi),三类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)可(ke)以施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)浇水(shui),亩(mu)(mu)(mu)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)5—8公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)尿素(su)(su),促(cu)(cu)(cu)三类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)转化(hua)升级(ji);到拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)期每(mei)亩(mu)(mu)(mu)再追(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)5—8公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)尿素(su)(su),促(cu)(cu)(cu)进(jin)穗花(hua)发育,增加每(mei)穗粒数(shu)(shu)。对二类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)苗(miao)(miao)(miao),重点(dian)是适(shi)当促(cu)(cu)(cu)进(jin)春(chun)季分(fen)(fen)(fen)蘖(nie)(nie),巩固冬(dong)前分(fen)(fen)(fen)蘖(nie)(nie),提高(gao)分(fen)(fen)(fen)蘖(nie)(nie)成穗率。应在(zai)(zai)小麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)起身(shen)期进(jin)行(xing)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)水(shui)管(guan)(guan)理(li),结合浇水(shui)亩(mu)(mu)(mu)追(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿素(su)(su)10—15公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)。对一(yi)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)苗(miao)(miao)(miao),突出(chu)氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)后移。对地(di)(di)力(li)水(shui)平较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)、亩(mu)(mu)(mu)群体(ti)(ti)茎蘖(nie)(nie)数(shu)(shu)70—80万的(de)一(yi)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian),在(zai)(zai)小麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)中(zhong)后期追(zhui)(zhui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)浇水(shui),以获得(de)更高(gao)产(chan)量(liang);对地(di)(di)力(li)水(shui)平一(yi)般、亩(mu)(mu)(mu)群体(ti)(ti)茎蘖(nie)(nie)数(shu)(shu)60—70万的(de)一(yi)类(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)(lei)麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian),在(zai)(zai)小麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)初期进(jin)行(xing)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)水(shui)管(guan)(guan)理(li),结合浇水(shui)亩(mu)(mu)(mu)追(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿素(su)(su)15公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)。对旱地(di)(di)麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian),应在(zai)(zai)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)春(chun)土壤(rang)化(hua)冻(dong)(dong)后抓紧(jin)进(jin)行(xing)镇压(ya)划锄、顶凌耙耱等,以提墒、保(bao)(bao)墒。弱(ruo)(ruo)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian),要(yao)在(zai)(zai)土壤(rang)返(fan)(fan)浆后,借(jie)墒施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),促(cu)(cu)(cu)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)发;一(yi)般壮(zhuang)苗(miao)(miao)(miao)麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian),应在(zai)(zai)小麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)起身(shen)至拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)期间降雨(yu)后,抓紧(jin)借(jie)雨(yu)追(zhui)(zhui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)。一(yi)般亩(mu)(mu)(mu)追(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿素(su)(su)12—15公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)。对底肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)没施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)的(de),要(yao)在(zai)(zai)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)时(shi)(shi)配(pei)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)酸二铵(an),促(cu)(cu)(cu)根下扎,提高(gao)抗旱能力(li)。对冻(dong)(dong)害麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian),冬(dong)前和越冬(dong)期冻(dong)(dong)害较(jiao)(jiao)重的(de)麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)田(tian)(tian),要(yao)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)管(guan)(guan)促(cu)(cu)(cu)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)发,及(ji)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)采取管(guan)(guan)理(li)措施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)。早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)春(chun)适(shi)时(shi)(shi)搂麦(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)(mai)或(huo)划锄,去除枯(ku)叶(ye),促(cu)(cu)(cu)新(xin)生叶(ye)早(zao)(zao)(zao)(zao)生快发。在(zai)(zai)土壤(rang)解冻(dong)(dong)后及(ji)时(shi)(shi)追(zhui)(zhui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),一(yi)般每(mei)亩(mu)(mu)(mu)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿素(su)(su)15公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)左(zuo)右(you),缺磷(lin)(lin)(lin)地(di)(di)块亩(mu)(mu)(mu)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)复(fu)合肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)20公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)左(zuo)右(you),促(cu)(cu)(cu)进(jin)分(fen)(fen)(fen)蘖(nie)(nie)成穗。在(zai)(zai)拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)期再根据苗(miao)(miao)(miao)情(qing)酌情(qing)追(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)或(huo)氮(dan)磷(lin)(lin)(lin)复(fu)合肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),提高(gao)穗粒数(shu)(shu)。

  三(san)是防(fang)控(kong)(kong)病(bing)(bing)(bing)虫,化(hua)学除(chu)草(cao)(cao)。做好(hao)(hao)纹枯(ku)病(bing)(bing)(bing)、全蚀病(bing)(bing)(bing)、茎(jing)基腐(fu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)、根(gen)腐(fu)病(bing)(bing)(bing)、地下害(hai)(hai)虫、麦蜘蛛(zhu)、吸浆(jiang)虫等病(bing)(bing)(bing)虫害(hai)(hai)监(jian)测防(fang)控(kong)(kong)工作(zuo),指导农民(min)科学选(xuan)药(yao)、安(an)全用(yong)药(yao),及(ji)时(shi)防(fang)治、联防(fang)联治。要(yao)精(jing)准用(yong)药(yao),绿(lv)色防(fang)控(kong)(kong)。对(dui)冬(dong)前没有进(jin)行化(hua)学除(chu)草(cao)(cao)的麦田(tian),当日平(ping)均气(qi)温稳定通过6℃以后,选(xuan)择(ze)晴好(hao)(hao)天(tian)气(qi)于上午(wu)10点(dian)至下午(wu)4点(dian),及(ji)时(shi)化(hua)学除(chu)草(cao)(cao),根(gen)据田(tian)间(jian)杂草(cao)(cao)种类选(xuan)择(ze)适宜(yi)除(chu)草(cao)(cao)剂,并严格按照要(yao)求操作(zuo),以免发生(sheng)药(yao)害(hai)(hai)。

  四是预防(fang)冻害(hai)(hai),及时(shi)(shi)补救。密切关注天气(qi)变化,在降温之(zhi)前及时(shi)(shi)灌水(shui),改善土壤墒情,调节近地(di)面层小气(qi)候,减小地(di)面温度变化幅度,防(fang)御早春冻害(hai)(hai)。冻害(hai)(hai)发生(sheng)后(hou),及时(shi)(shi)追施适(shi)量(liang)氮肥,然(ran)后(hou)浇水(shui),促进受冻小麦(mai)恢复生(sheng)长。

  二、长江中下游地区

  小(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)已(yi)陆续返(fan)青,苗情总体好于上年(nian)同(tong)期,但旺长苗比例有所增加,部分(fen)田块土(tu)壤(rang)过(guo)湿,晚播(bo)小(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)苗情偏弱,杂草和病虫(chong)害(hai)威胁较大。同(tong)时(shi),小(xiao)麦(mai)(mai)生育进程快于常年(nian),春季冻害(hai)风险高。为(wei)此(ci),春季麦(mai)(mai)田管理(li)应采取“促弱控旺、稳穗(sui)(sui)(sui)增粒、抗逆保丰”的技术(shu)路径(jing),针对苗情的不(bu)平衡(heng)性(xing),分(fen)类(lei)精(jing)准管理(li),重点是(shi)施好拔节孕穗(sui)(sui)(sui)肥和防治(zhi)赤霉病,争(zheng)取足穗(sui)(sui)(sui)、大穗(sui)(sui)(sui)、优质(zhi)丰产。

  一(yi)(yi)是(shi)因苗制宜,施(shi)(shi)(shi)好(hao)拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)。春季管理的(de)(de)重点是(shi)施(shi)(shi)(shi)好(hao)拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),开(kai)春时(shi)(shi)要及(ji)时(shi)(shi)查苗。对(dui)返青(qing)时(shi)(shi)群(qun)(qun)体(ti)过小(xiao)(xiao)(亩群(qun)(qun)体(ti)茎蘖(nie)数小(xiao)(xiao)于(yu)40万)、穗(sui)数可(ke)能(neng)不(bu)(bu)(bu)足(zu)的(de)(de)三类(lei)苗和脱(tuo)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)落黄(huang)严重麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian),要提(ti)(ti)早(zao)施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),以促进弱(ruo)苗转壮,争(zheng)取足(zu)穗(sui);对(dui)群(qun)(qun)体(ti)茎蘖(nie)数适宜的(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)、二(er)类(lei)苗麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian),在(zai)叶(ye)色(se)正常(chang)褪(tun)淡(dan)、植株基部第一(yi)(yi)节(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)间接近定长、第二(er)节(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)间伸(shen)长1—2厘(li)米(mi)、叶(ye)龄(ling)余数2.5左右时(shi)(shi),追(zhui)(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),有利于(yu)培育(yu)壮秆(gan)大穗(sui),拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)一(yi)(yi)般(ban)可(ke)亩施(shi)(shi)(shi)尿素(su)5—8公(gong)斤和三元(yuan)高效复合肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(纯(chun)氮、五氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)二(er)磷、氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)钾各15%)10—15公(gong)斤。对(dui)群(qun)(qun)体(ti)过大,叶(ye)色(se)未(wei)正常(chang)褪(tun)淡(dan)的(de)(de)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian),拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)应(ying)适当推迟施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong),要做(zuo)到叶(ye)色(se)不(bu)(bu)(bu)褪(tun)淡(dan)不(bu)(bu)(bu)施(shi)(shi)(shi)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)。高产(chan)田(tian)(tian)(tian)提(ti)(ti)倡施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)保花(hua)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),也叫孕穗(sui)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei),掌握在(zai)剑(jian)叶(ye)(旗叶(ye))露(lu)出一(yi)(yi)半时(shi)(shi)施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong),有显著的(de)(de)增(zeng)(zeng)粒(li)增(zeng)(zeng)重效果,一(yi)(yi)般(ban)可(ke)亩追(zhui)(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)尿素(su)5—8公(gong)斤。但对(dui)弱(ruo)筋小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai),施(shi)(shi)(shi)氮要前移,应(ying)以施(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)拔(ba)(ba)节(jie)(jie)(jie)(jie)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)为主(zhu),不(bu)(bu)(bu)宜追(zhui)(zhui)(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)保花(hua)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)。

  二是清沟理(li)墒,防(fang)渍防(fang)旱。春后要及时清沟理(li)墒、疏通(tong)(tong)田内(nei)外(wai)沟系,保证(zheng)排(pai)水(shui)畅通(tong)(tong),做到(dao)雨止田干、沟无(wu)积(ji)水(shui)。淮(huai)北麦区尤其旱茬小麦春后要注(zhu)意防(fang)旱,要清理(li)“三沟”,以利于中后期灌好拔节孕(yun)穗(sui)水(shui)。

  三是适时化(hua)除(chu),及(ji)时绿色防(fang)(fang)控病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)虫害(hai)。春季要根据草相(xiang)及(ji)时进行化(hua)学除(chu)草、控制杂草危害(hai),注意(yi)安全用(yong)(yong)药、防(fang)(fang)止(zhi)出现药害(hai)。加强纹(wen)枯(ku)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)、白粉病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)、赤(chi)霉(mei)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)等病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)虫害(hai)的(de)防(fang)(fang)治,对(dui)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)虫防(fang)(fang)治要及(ji)时用(yong)(yong)药、用(yong)(yong)对(dui)药剂、适量用(yong)(yong)药,白粉病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)、纹(wen)枯(ku)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)主要是避(bi)免防(fang)(fang)治过迟,赤(chi)霉(mei)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)关键是打药时间要科学。要突(tu)出强化(hua)“一喷三防(fang)(fang)”工作,结合病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)虫防(fang)(fang)治进行药肥混喷,可一喷多防(fang)(fang)、保(bao)绿防(fang)(fang)早衰、保(bao)粒增(zeng)重(zhong)。

  四是防御冻(dong)害(hai)(hai),及早(zao)补救。今年(nian)早(zao)春发生冻(dong)害(hai)(hai)的(de)风险较(jiao)高,在小(xiao)(xiao)麦(mai)冻(dong)害(hai)(hai)发生后2—3天及时调查幼(you)穗受(shou)冻(dong)程度,对茎(jing)蘖(nie)受(shou)冻(dong)死亡(wang)率(lv)超过10%的(de)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)尽(jin)早(zao)追肥,幼(you)穗冻(dong)死率(lv)10%—30%的(de)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)亩(mu)施(shi)(shi)尿素(su)5公斤左右(you),冻(dong)死率(lv)30%—50%的(de)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)亩(mu)施(shi)(shi)尿素(su)7—10公斤,冻(dong)死率(lv)50%以上的(de)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)亩(mu)施(shi)(shi)尿素(su)12—15公斤,争取(qu)小(xiao)(xiao)分(fen)蘖(nie)和高节位(wei)分(fen)蘖(nie)成穗,以挽(wan)回产量损失。

  五是(shi)控(kong)制(zhi)旺长(zhang),防止倒(dao)伏。对(dui)群体过(guo)大、有倒(dao)伏风险(xian)的麦田(tian),应强化(hua)控(kong)旺防倒(dao)。严格控(kong)制(zhi)早(zao)春(chun)施肥。搞好拔(ba)节(jie)前(qian)镇(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)压(ya),旺长(zhang)苗(miao)要重镇(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)压(ya),一般镇(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)压(ya)1次,控(kong)制(zhi)效应在1周左(zuo)(zuo)右(you),因此旺长(zhang)苗(miao)每隔10天(tian)左(zuo)(zuo)右(you)压(ya)1次,连续镇(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)压(ya)2—3次,土壤过(guo)湿、有露水、封冻(dong)、盐(yan)碱土等(deng)情况下不宜镇(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)压(ya)。拔(ba)节(jie)后的小麦不能(neng)镇(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)压(ya)。在倒(dao)5叶(ye)(ye)至倒(dao)4叶(ye)(ye)初,叶(ye)(ye)面(mian)喷施生长(zhang)抑制(zhi)剂,可控(kong)旺防倒(dao)伏。

  三、西南地区

  小(xiao)麦处于拔节后期,苗情(qing)总体较好,生育进程与常年相当。大(da)部分地(di)区土(tu)壤墒情(qing)适宜,丘陵稻茬(cha)麦渍害明显,蚜虫发生略重(zhong)于去年同期。田间管理(li)应采取(qu)“以促(cu)为(wei)主、促(cu)控结合”的(de)技术路径。

  一是(shi)严格用(yong)肥(fei),促弱控旺。亩(mu)产(chan)目(mu)标400—500公斤(jin)(jin)稻茬麦田(tian)(tian),纯氮总量(liang)(liang)控制在9—11公斤(jin)(jin),农户应(ying)(ying)根据底肥(fei)施用(yong)情况确定(ding)拔(ba)节追肥(fei)用(yong)量(liang)(liang)。底肥(fei)已施6公斤(jin)(jin)的(de)(de),拔(ba)节期再追施3—5公斤(jin)(jin)。对播种迟、群(qun)体小,或长势弱的(de)(de)丘(qiu)陵旱(han)地麦,亩(mu)施2—3公斤(jin)(jin)速效(xiao)氮肥(fei)。因播期偏早(zao)、播量(liang)(liang)偏大,或施肥(fei)过重造成的(de)(de)旺长田(tian)(tian),应(ying)(ying)喷施生(sheng)(sheng)长延缓剂控制生(sheng)(sheng)育进程,预防倒伏(fu)。

  二(er)是看墒补(bu)水(shui),清沟(gou)(gou)降(jiang)渍。去年秋播以来,降(jiang)雨(yu)正常,大部分(fen)麦田墒情(qing)适宜,能保证小穗、小花(hua)分(fen)化(hua)发育之需。但(dan)要(yao)注意丘陵地(di)区两类(lei)极(ji)端(duan)地(di)块,一是槽沟(gou)(gou)地(di)带稻茬(cha)麦田依然较湿(shi),应(ying)注意清沟(gou)(gou)降(jiang)渍;二(er)是旱坡地(di)带则偏干,需要(yao)补(bu)充(chong)浇(jiao)灌。

  三(san)是(shi)病(bing)(bing)虫(chong)防(fang)(fang)治(zhi),监(jian)测锈(xiu)病(bing)(bing)。2月至(zhi)3月中(zhong)(zhong)下旬是(shi)防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)条锈(xiu)病(bing)(bing)中(zhong)(zhong)心病(bing)(bing)团(tuan)的(de)(de)关(guan)键时期(qi),要对(dui)中(zhong)(zhong)心病(bing)(bing)团(tuan)(病(bing)(bing)株)的(de)(de)点片(pian)田块喷(pen)药防(fang)(fang)治(zhi),防(fang)(fang)止病(bing)(bing)害流行。赤霉(mei)病(bing)(bing)以(yi)防(fang)(fang)为主,制定以(yi)赤霉(mei)病(bing)(bing)预防(fang)(fang)为重(zhong)点的(de)(de)“一喷(pen)多防(fang)(fang)”措施(shi),有效防(fang)(fang)控多种病(bing)(bing)虫(chong)害。

  四是(shi)预防低(di)(di)温,防范冻(dong)害。“倒春寒”活动频繁、对安全孕穗(sui)扬花(hua)(hua)构成威胁(xie)的(de)地(di)区(qu),应通过水(shui)肥管理措(cuo)施,增强(qiang)小麦对低(di)(di)温的(de)抵御能(neng)力,减少(shao)小花(hua)(hua)败育,稳定穗(sui)粒数(shu)。

  四、西北地区

  去年小(xiao)麦播(bo)种期底墒充(chong)足(zu)(zu),苗(miao)情(qing)整体(ti)较好(hao),部分水浇地(di)小(xiao)麦冬(dong)前出现旺长趋势。入(ru)冬(dong)以来降雨较少,旱地(di)小(xiao)麦略显旱情(qing)。该区域是我(wo)国小(xiao)麦条锈病(bing)主要越夏(xia)、越冬(dong)区,虽(sui)然今年发病(bing)时期有(you)所推迟,基(ji)数不高,但(dan)也(ye)应加强源头防控。水浇地(di)小(xiao)麦春(chun)季管(guan)理(li)可参照黄淮麦区相(xiang)关技术要求进行,旱地(di)小(xiao)麦春(chun)季管(guan)理(li)的关键(jian)在于“立足(zu)(zu)抗(kang)旱”,做好(hao)早(zao)(zao)春(chun)镇压(ya)耙(pa)耱工作(zuo),促进小(xiao)麦早(zao)(zao)返青、多分蘖(nie)、旺转(zhuan)壮,确保(bao)穗数,适时追施(shi)拔节肥,增(zeng)加粒数,奠定夏(xia)粮(liang)丰收基(ji)础。

  一(yi)是立(li)足抗旱,耙(pa)耱保(bao)墒(shang),镇压提墒(shang)。做好小(xiao)麦(mai)越(yue)冬期的水分监测工作,早(zao)春(chun)水浇地(di)(di)麦(mai)田(tian)和(he)旱地(di)(di)麦(mai)田(tian)应根据(ju)土(tu)壤墒(shang)情(qing)落实耙(pa)耱或中耕锄划等保(bao)墒(shang)措施,疏松表土(tu),减少(shao)土(tu)壤蒸(zheng)发保(bao)墒(shang)增(zeng)温(wen),重点做好旺(wang)苗田(tian)和(he)土(tu)壤悬(xuan)虚麦(mai)田(tian)冬季和(he)早(zao)春(chun)镇压耙(pa)耱;有水源灌溉地(di)(di)区可根据(ju)麦(mai)田(tian)土(tu)壤墒(shang)情(qing)制定灌溉计划,预(yu)防春(chun)旱。

  二(er)是促控(kong)(kong)结合(he),稳(wen)(wen)壮促弱控(kong)(kong)旺,分类管理。对(dui)一(yi)类苗(miao),突出(chu)氮(dan)肥(fei)后移。未浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)一(yi)类苗(miao)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian)应(ying)(ying)在(zai)起身前期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui);已浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)一(yi)类苗(miao)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian),肥(fei)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)条件(jian)好(hao),返(fan)(fan)(fan)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)亩(mu)(mu)总(zong)茎(jing)蘖(nie)(nie)数(shu)可(ke)达(da)70—80万(wan),可(ke)将(jiang)肥(fei)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管理推迟到拔节期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi),控(kong)(kong)制早(zao)(zao)春分蘖(nie)(nie),促进个体稳(wen)(wen)健生长。对(dui)二(er)类苗(miao),重(zhong)点(dian)是适(shi)当促进春季分蘖(nie)(nie),巩固(gu)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)前分蘖(nie)(nie),提(ti)(ti)高分蘖(nie)(nie)成穗(sui)率(lv)。未浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)二(er)类麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian)应(ying)(ying)在(zai)返(fan)(fan)(fan)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui),并亩(mu)(mu)追(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿(niao)素(su)(su)(su)(su)2.5—5公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin);已浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)二(er)类苗(miao)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian),返(fan)(fan)(fan)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)亩(mu)(mu)总(zong)茎(jing)蘖(nie)(nie)数(shu)50—60万(wan)或(huo)表墒(shang)较(jiao)差麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian),应(ying)(ying)在(zai)起身前中(zhong)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)追(zhui)肥(fei);亩(mu)(mu)总(zong)茎(jing)蘖(nie)(nie)数(shu)60—70万(wan),应(ying)(ying)在(zai)起身后期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi),浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)追(zhui)肥(fei);保大(da)蘖(nie)(nie)、争(zheng)(zheng)中(zhong)蘖(nie)(nie)为(wei)重(zhong)点(dian),提(ti)(ti)高成穗(sui)率(lv)、确保亩(mu)(mu)穗(sui)数(shu),结合(he)浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)亩(mu)(mu)追(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿(niao)素(su)(su)(su)(su)7.5—10公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)。对(dui)三(san)类苗(miao),应(ying)(ying)以(yi)促为(wei)主(zhu)。未浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)三(san)类苗(miao)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian)应(ying)(ying)返(fan)(fan)(fan)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)前期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui),并结合(he)浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)亩(mu)(mu)追(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿(niao)素(su)(su)(su)(su)5—7.5公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin);对(dui)于(yu)已浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)三(san)类苗(miao)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian),加强(qiang)返(fan)(fan)(fan)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)肥(fei)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管理,以(yi)促为(wei)主(zhu)。早(zao)(zao)春管理以(yi)保冬(dong)(dong)(dong)前蘖(nie)(nie)、促中(zhong)小蘖(nie)(nie),争(zheng)(zheng)亩(mu)(mu)穗(sui)数(shu)为(wei)重(zhong)点(dian)。墒(shang)情(qing)好(hao)的(de)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian),做(zuo)好(hao)返(fan)(fan)(fan)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)前期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)中(zhong)耕锄划提(ti)(ti)温保墒(shang),促早(zao)(zao)发,增加早(zao)(zao)春分蘖(nie)(nie),起身期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)配(pei)(pei)合(he)浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui),亩(mu)(mu)追(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿(niao)素(su)(su)(su)(su)7.5—10公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),配(pei)(pei)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)磷(lin)酸二(er)铵(an)2.5公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),提(ti)(ti)高成穗(sui)数(shu)。表墒(shang)差的(de)麦(mai)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian),春季应(ying)(ying)进行两(liang)次肥(fei)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)管理,第一(yi)次浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)追(zhui)肥(fei)应(ying)(ying)在(zai)返(fan)(fan)(fan)青(qing)(qing)(qing)(qing)时,亩(mu)(mu)追(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿(niao)素(su)(su)(su)(su)5—7.5公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),配(pei)(pei)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)磷(lin)酸二(er)铵(an)2.5公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin);拔节期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)进行第二(er)次浇(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)追(zhui)肥(fei),亩(mu)(mu)追(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿(niao)素(su)(su)(su)(su)5公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),提(ti)(ti)高成穗(sui)率(lv),促进小花发育,增加穗(sui)粒(li)数(shu)。晚播弱苗(miao)田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian)应(ying)(ying)趁雨雪,雪后追(zhui)肥(fei)和早(zao)(zao)春返(fan)(fan)(fan)浆期(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)追(zhui)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)速效氮(dan)肥(fei),一(yi)般亩(mu)(mu)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)尿(niao)素(su)(su)(su)(su)5—7.5公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),磷(lin)肥(fei)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用不足田(tian)(tian)(tian)(tian)块可(ke)配(pei)(pei)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)磷(lin)酸二(er)铵(an)5公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)。

  三是(shi)科学化除,做(zuo)好(hao)(hao)病(bing)(bing)虫(chong)防(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)。提早(zao)(zao)开展病(bing)(bing)虫(chong)草(cao)调查(cha),对(dui)发(fa)生趋势和程度做(zuo)出及时、准确的预测预报(bao)。重(zhong)点(dian)做(zuo)好(hao)(hao)病(bing)(bing)害(白粉病(bing)(bing)、锈病(bing)(bing)、赤霉病(bing)(bing)等)和虫(chong)害(金针虫(chong)、蛴螬、吸浆虫(chong)、麦(mai)(mai)蜘蛛、麦(mai)(mai)蚜等)的监测防(fang)治(zhi)(zhi),及时指导农民科学选(xuan)药、安全用药,早(zao)(zao)防(fang)早(zao)(zao)治(zhi)(zhi),统(tong)防(fang)统(tong)治(zhi)(zhi)。冬(dong)前(qian)未进行化学除草(cao)的麦(mai)(mai)田(tian),在(zai)春季日(ri)均温稳定通过5℃至(zhi)小麦(mai)(mai)拔节(jie)前(qian),选(xuan)择晴好(hao)(hao)天气,上午10点(dian)至(zhi)下午4点(dian),根据田(tian)间杂草(cao)种类,选(xuan)择对(dui)路除草(cao)剂,及时进行化除。

  四是预防冻(dong)害,及(ji)时补救(jiu)。密切关注天气(qi)变(bian)化,在降温之前(qian)及(ji)时灌水(shui)(shui),改善土壤墒情,调节近地面层(ceng)小(xiao)(xiao)气(qi)候,减小(xiao)(xiao)地面温度变(bian)化幅(fu)度,防御早春冻(dong)害。冻(dong)害发生(sheng)后(hou),及(ji)时追施适量氮肥(fei),然后(hou)浇(jiao)水(shui)(shui),促进受冻(dong)小(xiao)(xiao)麦恢复(fu)生(sheng)长(zhang),减轻冻(dong)害损失。


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