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棉花 · 2020年春季科学施肥建议

微观三农

一、黄淮海(hai)棉区

  1.施肥原则
  (1)增施(shi)有机肥,提倡有机替代比例20%以上,但(dan)不高于35%。
  (2)依据(ju)土壤肥(fei)力(li)条件,适(shi)当(dang)调(diao)减氮(dan)磷(lin)化肥(fei)用(yong)量(liang),合理施(shi)(shi)用(yong)钾肥(fei),注意硼和锌的配合施(shi)(shi)用(yong)。
  (3)氮肥(fei)分(fen)期(qi)施(shi)用,增加生育中期(qi)的(de)氮肥(fei)施(shi)用比(bi)例,降低基(ji)肥(fei)比(bi)例。
  (4)肥料(liao)施(shi)用(yong)应与灌溉防涝技术和其他高产优(you)质栽培(pei)技术相结合。
  2.施肥建议
  (1)亩(mu)产皮棉(mian)(mian)85-100公斤的条件下,亩(mu)施优质有机(ji)肥(fei)(fei)2.0吨以上,氮肥(fei)(fei)(N)12-14公斤,磷肥(fei)(fei)(P2O5)6-8公斤,钾肥(fei)(fei)(K2O)6-8公斤。对于硼(peng)、锌(xin)缺乏的棉(mian)(mian)田,注意补施硼(peng)、锌(xin)肥(fei)(fei),硼(peng)肥(fei)(fei)(硼(peng)砂)、锌(xin)肥(fei)(fei)(硫酸锌(xin))用(yong)量每亩(mu)用(yong)量1-2公斤,硼(peng)肥(fei)(fei)叶片喷施:亩(mu)用(yong)量100-150克水溶(rong)性硼(peng)肥(fei)(fei),在现蕾-开花期进行。
  (2)有机肥(fei)在犁地前全部(bu)(bu)施(shi)入土壤做(zuo)基(ji)肥(fei)。氮肥(fei)25%-30%用(yong)(yong)作(zuo)基(ji)肥(fei),25%-30%用(yong)(yong)在初(chu)花(hua)期(qi),25%-30%用(yong)(yong)在盛(sheng)花(hua)期(qi),10%-25%用(yong)(yong)作(zuo)盖顶肥(fei);15%磷肥(fei)做(zuo)种(zhong)肥(fei),85%磷肥(fei)作(zuo)基(ji)肥(fei);钾(jia)肥(fei)全部(bu)(bu)用(yong)(yong)作(zuo)基(ji)肥(fei)或基(ji)追(初(chu)花(hua)期(qi))各半。从盛(sheng)花(hua)期(qi)开始,对长(zhang)势(shi)弱(ruo)的棉田,结合(he)施(shi)药混喷(pen)0.5%-1.0%尿素和0.3%-0.5%磷酸二氢(qing)钾(jia)溶液35-50公斤(jin)/亩,每隔7-10天喷(pen)一次(ci),连(lian)续喷(pen)施(shi)2-3次(ci)。
  二、长江中下游棉区
  1.施肥原则
  (1)增施有(you)机肥(fei),提倡有(you)机替(ti)代比例20%以上(shang),但不(bu)高于35%。
  (2)依据土壤肥力状况和肥效反(fan)应,适当调减氮磷化肥用(yong)量(liang)(liang),稳定钾肥用(yong)量(liang)(liang)。
  (3)土壤(rang)硼、锌明显(xian)缺乏的棉(mian)田应基施硼肥(fei)(fei)和锌肥(fei)(fei),潜在缺乏的应注重根外追施硼、锌肥(fei)(fei)。
  (4)对于育苗移(yi)栽(zai)棉田,磷钾肥采用(yong)穴施(shi)(shi)或条施(shi)(shi)等集中施(shi)(shi)用(yong)。
  (5)肥(fei)料施用应与灌溉(gai)防涝(lao)技术(shu)和其他(ta)高产(chan)优(you)质栽培技术(shu)相结合。
  2.施肥建议
  (1)皮棉亩产在90-110公斤(jin)的条件下(xia),亩施用优质有机肥(fei)1.5吨以上,氮肥(fei)(N)13-15公斤(jin),磷肥(fei)(P2O5)6-7公斤(jin),钾肥(fei)(K2O)10-12公斤(jin)。对于硼(peng)(peng)、锌缺(que)乏(fa)的棉田(tian),注意(yi)补施硼(peng)(peng)砂1.0-2.0公斤(jin)/亩和(he)硫(liu)酸锌1.5-2.0公斤(jin)/亩。低产田(tian)适当调低施肥(fei)量20%左右。
  (2)有机肥(fei)(fei)在(zai)犁(li)地前全部施(shi)入土壤做基(ji)(ji)(ji)肥(fei)(fei)。氮肥(fei)(fei)25%-30%作基(ji)(ji)(ji)施(shi),25%-30%用作初花(hua)(hua)期追肥(fei)(fei),25%-30%用作盛花(hua)(hua)期追肥(fei)(fei),15%-20%用作铃(ling)期追肥(fei)(fei);磷(lin)肥(fei)(fei)全部作为基(ji)(ji)(ji)施(shi);钾肥(fei)(fei)60%用作基(ji)(ji)(ji)施(shi),40%用作初花(hua)(hua)期追肥(fei)(fei)。从盛花(hua)(hua)期开始(shi)对长势较弱(ruo)的棉田,喷(pen)施(shi)0.5%-1.0%尿素和0.3%-0.5%磷(lin)酸二氢(qing)钾溶液25-30公斤/亩,每隔7-10天喷(pen)一次,连续喷(pen)施(shi)2-3次。
  三、西北棉区
  1.施肥原则
  (1)充分利用有机(ji)肥资源,增施有机(ji)肥,棉秆100%还田(tian)。
  (2)适当(dang)调整(zheng)氮(dan)肥用(yong)(yong)量、增加生育中(zhong)期(qi)施(shi)用(yong)(yong)比例,合理施(shi)用(yong)(yong)磷、钾肥。
  (3)施肥(fei)与高产优质栽培技术相结(jie)合,尤(you)其要重视与滴灌、水溶(rong)肥(fei)、水肥(fei)一体化(hua)技术结(jie)合。
  2.施肥建议
  (1)膜下滴灌棉(mian)田(tian)(tian):皮棉(mian)亩(mu)(mu)产在(zai)120-150公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)条件下,在(zai)秸秆全部(bu)(bu)还田(tian)(tian)的(de)基础上(shang)(shang),亩(mu)(mu)施(shi)(shi)用棉(mian)籽饼50-75公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)或(huo)者牛(niu)羊粪(fen)堆肥(fei)(fei)600-1000公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu)(mu)。氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(N)20-22公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),磷(lin)肥(fei)(fei)(P2O5)8-10公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),钾肥(fei)(fei)(K2O)5-6公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin);皮棉(mian)亩(mu)(mu)产在(zai)150-180公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)条件下,在(zai)秸秆全部(bu)(bu)还田(tian)(tian)的(de)基础上(shang)(shang),亩(mu)(mu)施(shi)(shi)用棉(mian)籽饼75-100公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)或(huo)者牛(niu)羊粪(fen)堆肥(fei)(fei)600-1000公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu)(mu),氮(dan)肥(fei)(fei)(N)22-24公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),磷(lin)肥(fei)(fei)(P2O5)10-12公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),钾肥(fei)(fei)(K2O)6-8公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)。对(dui)于硼(peng)、锌缺乏的(de)棉(mian)田(tian)(tian),施(shi)(shi)硼(peng)肥(fei)(fei)(硼(peng)砂)1.0-2.0公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu)(mu),硫酸锌1.5-2.0公(gong)(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu)(mu)。硼(peng)肥(fei)(fei)叶面喷(pen)施(shi)(shi),亩(mu)(mu)用量100-150克。
  有机肥(fei)(fei)在犁地前全部施(shi)(shi)入土壤做基肥(fei)(fei)。氮肥(fei)(fei)基肥(fei)(fei)占总量(liang)20%左右,追肥(fei)(fei)占80%左右(现蕾(lei)期(qi)20%,开花期(qi)20%,花铃(ling)期(qi)30%,棉铃(ling)膨大期(qi)10%),磷(lin)肥(fei)(fei)、钾肥(fei)(fei)基肥(fei)(fei)占50%左右,其他作追肥(fei)(fei)。全生(sheng)育期(qi)追肥(fei)(fei)次(ci)数8次(ci)左右,从现蕾(lei)期(qi)开始追肥(fei)(fei),一(yi)水一(yi)肥(fei)(fei)。前期(qi)氮多(duo)磷(lin)少,中(zhong)后期(qi)磷(lin)多(duo)氮少,结(jie)合滴灌(guan)系统实行灌(guan)溉施(shi)(shi)肥(fei)(fei)。提(ti)倡(chang)选(xuan)用(yong)水溶(rong)肥(fei)(fei)配合尿素施(shi)(shi)用(yong),水溶(rong)肥(fei)(fei)提(ti)倡(chang)选(xuan)用(yong)高磷(lin)低钾品种。一(yi)般前期(qi)尿素与水溶(rong)肥(fei)(fei)用(yong)量(liang)比例2:1,中(zhong)后期(qi)尿素与水溶(rong)肥(fei)(fei)用(yong)量(liang)比例1:1,8月底(di)开始只施(shi)(shi)用(yong)专用(yong)肥(fei)(fei)。
  (2)常规灌溉(淹灌或沟灌)棉(mian)(mian)(mian)田(tian):皮棉(mian)(mian)(mian)亩(mu)产在(zai)110-130公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)条件下,在(zai)秸(jie)秆全部还(hai)田(tian)的基础上(shang),亩(mu)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)棉(mian)(mian)(mian)籽饼50公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)或优(you)质有(you)机肥1-1.5吨,氮肥(N)22-26 公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu),磷肥(P2O5)7-8公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu),钾肥(K2O)6-8公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu);皮棉(mian)(mian)(mian)亩(mu)产在(zai)130公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)以上(shang),亩(mu)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)棉(mian)(mian)(mian)籽饼75-100公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)或优(you)质有(you)机肥1.5-2.0吨,氮肥(N)25-28公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu),磷肥(P2O5)10-13公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu),钾肥(K2O)6-9公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu)。对于硼(peng)(peng)、锌(xin)缺乏的棉(mian)(mian)(mian)田(tian),施(shi)(shi)硼(peng)(peng)肥(硼(peng)(peng)砂)1.0-2.0公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu),硫酸锌(xin)1.5-2.0公(gong)(gong)斤(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)/亩(mu)。硼(peng)(peng)肥叶面喷施(shi)(shi),亩(mu)用(yong)量100-150克。

  地(di)面灌溉棉田(tian)有机肥(fei)(fei)(fei)在(zai)犁(li)地(di)前(qian)全部施(shi)(shi)入土(tu)壤做(zuo)基(ji)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)。45%-50%的(de)氮肥(fei)(fei)(fei)用(yong)(yong)作(zuo)基(ji)施(shi)(shi),50%-55%作(zuo)追肥(fei)(fei)(fei)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)。30%的(de)氮肥(fei)(fei)(fei)用(yong)(yong)在(zai)初花期,20%-25%的(de)氮肥(fei)(fei)(fei)用(yong)(yong)在(zai)盛(sheng)花期。50%-60%的(de)磷钾肥(fei)(fei)(fei)用(yong)(yong)作(zuo)基(ji)施(shi)(shi),40%-50%用(yong)(yong)作(zuo)追肥(fei)(fei)(fei),分现蕾肥(fei)(fei)(fei)、花铃(ling)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)两次(ci)施(shi)(shi)入,一般现蕾肥(fei)(fei)(fei)占总量(liang)20%左(zuo)右,花铃(ling)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)占总量(liang)30%左(zuo)右。硼肥(fei)(fei)(fei)叶面喷(pen)施(shi)(shi)效果(guo)较好,亩用(yong)(yong)量(liang)100-150克。锌肥(fei)(fei)(fei)做(zuo)基(ji)肥(fei)(fei)(fei)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong),亩用(yong)(yong)量(liang)1-2公斤。  


来源:农(nong)(nong)业(ye)农(nong)(nong)村(cun)部(bu)种植业(ye)管理司、全国农(nong)(nong)业(ye)技(ji)术推广(guang)服务中(zhong)心(xin)、农(nong)(nong)业(ye)农(nong)(nong)村(cun)部(bu)科学施肥指导(dao)专家组


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