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农业农村投资建设大有可为(政策解读)

  近日,中(zhong)央农(nong)(nong)(nong)办、农(nong)(nong)(nong)业农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)部(bu)等7部(bu)门联合印发《关(guan)于扩(kuo)大农(nong)(nong)(nong)业农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)有(you)效投(tou)资 加快补(bu)上(shang)“三农(nong)(nong)(nong)”领域突出(chu)短板(ban)的意见(jian)》(以下简称《意见(jian)》)。为何要扩(kuo)大农(nong)(nong)(nong)业农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)有(you)效投(tou)资,哪些重点领域亟(ji)待补(bu)短板(ban),有(you)哪些支持政(zheng)策?记者采访了中(zhong)央农(nong)(nong)(nong)办、农(nong)(nong)(nong)业农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)部(bu)有(you)关(guan)负责人和(he)专家。

  ●引导资源要素向(xiang)农业农村(cun)流动

  受宏观(guan)环境变化等多(duo)种(zhong)因素影响(xiang),2015年以来第一(yi)产(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)固定资(zi)(zi)产(chan)投资(zi)(zi)增(zeng)速逐年下滑。特别是去年以来,出现了(le)连续8个月(yue)的负增(zeng)长,全年增(zeng)速明(ming)显低于第二三产(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)。今(jin)年,突发(fa)的新冠肺炎(yan)疫情对农业(ye)(ye)(ye)农村(cun)投资(zi)(zi)造成了(le)较(jiao)大(da)冲击,一(yi)季度第一(yi)产(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)固定资(zi)(zi)产(chan)投资(zi)(zi)降幅13.8%,其中(zhong)占比(bi)最大(da)的民间投资(zi)(zi)同比(bi)下降16.9%,后(hou)续跌幅虽然逐步收窄,但下降趋势仍未得(de)到(dao)根本遏制。

  “补上全(quan)面小康‘三农(nong)(nong)’领域(yu)突(tu)出短板(ban),克服疫情带来的不利影响,确保粮食(shi)安(an)全(quan)和重要副食(shi)品供给、稳住农(nong)(nong)业(ye)基本(ben)盘,必须切实扩大农(nong)(nong)业(ye)农(nong)(nong)村有(you)效投资(zi)。”中(zhong)央农(nong)(nong)办、农(nong)(nong)业(ye)农(nong)(nong)村部有(you)关负责人强调。

  《意见(jian)》提出,对(dui)标实施乡村(cun)振兴战略,立足当前、着眼长远,围绕加强农(nong)业农(nong)村(cun)基础设施和防灾减灾能力建(jian)设,实施一(yi)批牵引性强、有(you)利于(yu)生产消费(fei)“双升(sheng)级”的现代农(nong)业农(nong)村(cun)重大工程项目,千方百计扩大农(nong)业农(nong)村(cun)有(you)效投资规模。

  “对标我国未来发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)的三(san)阶段目标,当前农(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)(ye)农(nong)(nong)村发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)滞(zhi)后(hou)于工业(ye)(ye)(ye)和(he)(he)城市,要在这个滞(zhi)后(hou)的起点上实(shi)现(xian)追(zhui)赶。在整个经(jing)(jing)济发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)理念里,包括公共资源(yuan)的分(fen)配、领(ling)导力量的配备等,都要真正做到农(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)(ye)农(nong)(nong)村的优(you)先发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)。”国务院发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)研究中心农(nong)(nong)村经(jing)(jing)济研究部(bu)部(bu)长叶兴庆说。《意见(jian)》正是(shi)通过创新体制机(ji)制、引导资源(yuan)要素向农(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)(ye)农(nong)(nong)村流动,推动农(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)(ye)优(you)结构(gou)、增(zeng)后(hou)劲(jing),为维护经(jing)(jing)济发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)和(he)(he)社(she)会(hui)稳(wen)定大局提供坚实(shi)支撑。

  ●瞄准突出(chu)短板,加(jia)快11个方(fang)面(mian)重大工程项目建(jian)设

  对标全面建成小康社会和乡(xiang)村(cun)振兴(xing)战略实(shi)施(shi),我国(guo)农(nong)(nong)业农(nong)(nong)村(cun)建设(she)还(hai)存在(zai)明显的薄(bo)弱(ruo)环节。比(bi)如,农(nong)(nong)业生(sheng)产(chan)基础(chu)支(zhi)撑还(hai)不(bu)(bu)牢固(gu),低产(chan)田还(hai)有4亿亩、占耕地(di)面积(ji)的22%;农(nong)(nong)产(chan)品(pin)加(jia)工转化率还(hai)不(bu)(bu)高,农(nong)(nong)产(chan)品(pin)加(jia)工业与(yu)农(nong)(nong)业产(chan)值(zhi)之比(bi)仅(jin)为(wei)2.3∶1,分拣、仓储、烘干、保(bao)鲜、包装等设(she)施(shi)明显不(bu)(bu)足,水果(guo)、蔬菜等产(chan)后(hou)损耗率达20%;农(nong)(nong)村(cun)公共基础(chu)设(she)施(shi)建设(she)较(jiao)为(wei)薄(bo)弱(ruo),82.6%的村(cun)生(sheng)活污(wu)水未得到集中处理,30%以上的农(nong)(nong)户没(mei)有普及卫生(sheng)厕(ce)所。

  这(zhei)也意(yi)味着农(nong)(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)投资建(jian)(jian)设领(ling)域大有可为。《意(yi)见》着重(zhong)提(ti)出要加快高标准农(nong)(nong)(nong)田、农(nong)(nong)(nong)产(chan)品仓储(chu)保鲜冷链物流设施、现代(dai)农(nong)(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)园(yuan)区、动植(zhi)物保护、沿海现代(dai)渔港、农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)人居环(huan)境整(zheng)治、农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)供水保障、乡(xiang)镇污水处理(li)、智慧农(nong)(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)和数(shu)字乡(xiang)村(cun)(cun)、农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)公路(lu)、农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)电(dian)网等11个方面的农(nong)(nong)(nong)业(ye)(ye)农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)重(zhong)大工程项(xiang)目建(jian)(jian)设。

  “这(zhei)(zhei)些工程的(de)(de)落地,有(you)利(li)于提升粮食、生猪(zhu)等重要(yao)农(nong)产(chan)品稳(wen)产(chan)保供和(he)抗灾减灾能(neng)力,推(tui)进农(nong)业(ye)向集约高效、绿色安全方(fang)向转变,促进农(nong)业(ye)可持(chi)续(xu)发展,帮助缩小城(cheng)乡居民基本(ben)生活条件方(fang)面的(de)(de)差(cha)距等。同时(shi),还将(jiang)推(tui)动农(nong)业(ye)农(nong)村信息化、智能(neng)化、融合化发展,给(ji)农(nong)业(ye)农(nong)村赋(fu)能(neng),提升现代(dai)化生产(chan)水平(ping),形成更多新的(de)(de)增长点、增长极。”中央农(nong)办、农(nong)业(ye)农(nong)村部有(you)关负责人说,当前和(he)今后一段时(shi)间(jian),扩(kuo)大农(nong)业(ye)农(nong)村有(you)效投资就要(yao)围(wei)绕这(zhei)(zhei)些重大领域(yu),谋划重大工程项目,真金(jin)白银地投、实(shi)打实(shi)地干。

  ●中央和(he)地方财政加强“三(san)农”投入保障

  《意见》要(yao)求,健全投入机制,拓宽投资(zi)渠道,优(you)化投资(zi)环境,加快形成财(cai)政优(you)先保(bao)障、金融重点倾斜、社会(hui)积极参与的(de)多元(yuan)投入格局,并(bing)从扩大(da)地方(fang)政府债(zhai)券用于农(nong)业农(nong)村规(gui)模、保(bao)障财(cai)政支农(nong)投入、增强投资(zi)者信心等方(fang)面提(ti)出了相关政策措施。

  扩大(da)地方政府债券用于农业(ye)农村规模(mo)。今年(nian),中央大(da)幅增加地方政府债券发(fa)行(xing)额度,并明确(que)支(zhi)持现代农业(ye)设(she)施(shi)、饮水安全工程(cheng)和人居环境整治建(jian)设(she)。上(shang)半(ban)年(nian),安徽、四川、江西等27个(ge)省(sheng)份发(fa)行(xing)用于农业(ye)农村的专(zhuan)项债865亿元。

  保障财(cai)政(zheng)支农(nong)投(tou)(tou)入。近年(nian)来,中央财(cai)政(zheng)用于(yu)农(nong)林水的支出稳(wen)定增长。此(ci)次《意见》进一步强调,中央和地(di)方财(cai)政(zheng)要加强“三农(nong)”投(tou)(tou)入保障,中央预(yu)算内投(tou)(tou)资继(ji)续向“三农(nong)”补短板重大(da)(da)工程项目(mu)倾斜,提高土地(di)出让收入用于(yu)农(nong)业农(nong)村比例,扩大(da)(da)以工代赈规模(mo)。

  民(min)间(jian)资本(ben)常年占(zhan)第一产业(ye)固定资产投资的约80%,是农(nong)(nong)(nong)业(ye)农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)投资的主力军。如何提振民(min)间(jian)资本(ben)投资农(nong)(nong)(nong)业(ye)农(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)的信心?

  叶兴庆说,《意见》要求加大(da)(da)金融(rong)(rong)服务“三农(nong)”力度,抓紧出(chu)台(tai)普惠金融(rong)(rong)支持新(xin)型农(nong)业经营(ying)主体发展的政策举措,创(chuang)新(xin)金融(rong)(rong)产品与服务,全面推行温室大(da)(da)棚、大(da)(da)型农(nong)机、土地经营(ying)权抵(di)押融(rong)(rong)资(zi)等(deng)。

  《 人民日报 》( 2020年07月26日 02 版(ban))


来源:中国农村网

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